What are test cases? How to write Software-related test cases?

What are test cases? How to write Software-related test cases?

What are test cases?

Test cases are the scenarios that are used for measuring the functionality of the application across a set of certain actions or conditions in order to verify the expected results. In other words, a test case is a set of actions executed to authenticate the functionality of your software application. 

A test case consists of various things such as test steps, test data, and pre and post conditions developed for a particular test scenario. Test cases can be applied to any software application. It can be done through both manual and automated testing or any test management tool. 

Different types of test cases:

There are various different types of test cases.

  1. Functionality test case – Functionality test cases, as the name suggests, are used to analyze if the system is working as expected or not. The QA team is responsible for writing the functional test cases. This type of testing can be done as soon as the development team makes the first function of the application available for testing. For example, verifying if the user can upload a profile picture. 
  2. Integration test case – Integration test cases are used to analyze if the different modules of the application are interacting with each other properly or not. The testing team is responsible for separating the areas that must go under integration testing. On the other hand, the development team helps with writing the integration test cases. For example, verifying if the log-in page appears when we click on the ‘log-in’ button on the home page. 
  3. Usability test case – Usability test cases, also known as tasks or scenarios, are cases where the testers present high-level scenarios or tasks to complete instead of step-by-step instructions to perform the test. These test cases are used to analyze how the users usually approach and use an application. For example, verifying if the user can add more than one item to their shopping cart on an online shopping website and how is that experience?

Test Case Vs Test Scenario:

Test CaseTest Scenario
Test case is a set of actions executed to verify a particular feature or functionality of the application.A test scenario is any functionality of the application that can be tested.
Test case focuses on how to testTest scenario focuses on what to test
Test case includes test steps, data, and expected results of testingTest scenario includes end-to-end functionality that needs to be tested
QA and development teams are responsible for writing the test casesTest scenarios are reviewed by business analysts or business managers
This helps in exhaustive testingThis helps in the agile methodology of testing the overall personality
It requires more time, effort, and resourcesIt requires less time and efforts in comparison

How to write test cases?

There are several steps that must be followed for writing test cases. They include

  1. Test Case ID – Each and every test case must be represented with a unique ID. This makes it easier and more convenient to understand and distinguish between them. 
  2. Test Case Description – Each test case must have a proper description consisting of important details like which feature, unit, or function is being tested and what has to be verified. 
  3. Pre-conditions – We also accumulate the conditions that must be kept in mind while executing the test.
  4. Test Steps – In order to be able to execute a test properly, you must properly understand how to run that particular test case. So, write the steps for executing the test case in an easy and understandable language. 
  5. Test Info – Gather the data required for executing the test case in an accurate and concise manner. Accumulate that data in a clear and comprehensive document. 
  6. Desired Outcome – Explain the desired outcomes of the test case. For example, on entering the log-in button, the user will be logged into the website successfully. 
  7. Post Conditions – These are the conditions that must be met upon successful test case execution. 
  8. Actual Outcome – These are the outcomes that we get after executing the test case. Based on these outcomes, we find out if the test case passed or failed. 
  9. Status – Finally, we find the status of the test case as pass or fail on the basis of the actual outcomes we get from executing the test case. If we get desired outcomes, the test is marked as passed, if not, it is marked as failed. If the test fails, it goes through the bug life cycle to be fixed by the developers.

Important tips for writing a test case:

Some tips you should keep in mind while writing a test case include:

  • Write in easy, understandable, and comprehensive language
  • Your test case must resonate with the user’s perspective
  • Allocate a unique ID to each test case. It will help with efficient traceability
  • Prerequisites must be quoted properly and clearly. 
  • The test data must be defined properly in order to evaluate the functional areas
  • Make sure the expected outcomes are stated clearly
  • Test steps should also be listed clearly 
  • You should ensure that you provide proper details on the environment needed to execute the test
  • Consult with some seniors and peers to review the test cases you write and acknowledge their opinions as well.
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